BACKGROUND: Several recent studies in the Baltic region have found extended spectrum of pathogenic variants (PV) of the BRCA1/2 genes. The aim of current study is to analyze the spectrum of the BRCA1/2 PV in population of Latvia and to compare common PV between populations of the Baltic region.
METHODS: We present a cohort of 9543 unrelated individuals including ones with cancer and unaffected individuals from population of Latvia, who were tested for three most common BRCA1 founder PV. In second line testing, 164 founder negative high-risk individuals were tested for PV of the BRCA1/2 using next generation sequencing (NGS). Local spectrum of the BRCA1/2 PV was compared with the Baltic region by performing a literature review.
RESULTS: Founder PV c.5266dupC, c.4035delA or c.181 T > G was detected in 369/9543 (3.9%) cases. Other BRCA1/2 PV were found in 44/164 (26.8%) of NGS cases. Four recurrent BRCA1 variants c.5117G > A (p.Gly1706Glu), c.4675G > A (p.Glu1559Lys), c.5503C > T (p.Arg1835*) and c.1961delA (p.Lys654fs) were detected in 18/44 (41.0%), 5/44 (11.4%), 2/44 (4.5%) and 2/44 (4.5%) cases respectively. Additionally, 11 BRCA1 PV and six BRCA2 PV were each found in single family.
CONCLUSIONS: By combining three studies by our group of the same cohort in Latvia, frequency of the BRCA1/2 PV for unselected breast and ovarian cancer cases is 241/5060 (4.8%) and 162/1067 (15.2%) respectively. The frequency of three "historical" founder PV is up to 87.0% (369/424). Other non-founder PV contribute to at least 13.0% (55/424) and this proportion probably will rise by increasing numbers of the BRCA1/2 sequencing. In relative numbers, c.5117G > A is currently the third most frequent PV of the BRCA1 in population of Latvia, overcoming previously known third most common founder variant c.181 T > G. In addition to three BRCA1 founder PV, a total of five recurrent BRCA1 and two recurrent BRCA2 PV have been reported in population of Latvia so far. Many of the BRCA1/2 PV reported in Latvia are shared among other populations of the Baltic region.
- C.181 T > G
- C.5117G > A (p.Gly1706Glu)
- C.4675G > A
- C.1961delA (p.Lys654fs)
- C.5503C > T (p.Arg1835*)
Field of Science*
- 3.1 Basic medicine
- 3.2 Clinical medicine
- 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database