Genetic testing is becoming increasingly required at almost every stage of failed female reproduction/infertility. Nonetheless, clinical evidence for the majority of identified gene-disease relationships is ill-defined, thus leading to difficult gene variant interpretation and poor translation of existing knowledge into clinics. We aimed to identify the genes that have ever been implicated in monogenic female reproductive failure in humans and to classify the identified gene-disease relationship pairs using a standardized clinical validity assessment. A PubMed search following PRISMA guidelines was conducted on 20 September 2021 aiming to identify studies pertaining to genetic causes of phenotypes of female reproductive failure. The clinical validity of identified gene-disease pairs was assessed using standardized criteria, counting whether sufficient genetic and experimental evidence has been accumulated to consider a single gene 'characterized' for a single Mendelian disease. In total, 1256 articles were selected for the data extraction; 183 unique gene-disease pairs were classified spanning the following phenotypes: hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, ovarian dysgenesis, premature ovarian failure/insufficiency, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, empty follicle syndrome, oocyte maturation defect, fertilization failure, early embryonic arrest, recurrent hydatidiform mole, adrenal disfunction and Mullerian aplasia. Twenty-four gene-disease pairs showed definitive evidence, 36 - strong, 19 - moderate, 81 - limited and 23 - showed no evidence. Here, we provide comprehensive, systematic and timely information on the genetic causes of female infertility. Our classification of genetic causes of female reproductive failure will facilitate the composition of up-to-date guidelines on genetic testing in female reproduction, the development of diagnostic gene panels and the advancement of reproductive decision-making.
Field of Science*
- 3.1 Basic medicine
- 3.2 Clinical medicine
- 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database