Acute human bocavirus 1 infection in child with life-threatening bilateral bronchiolitis and right-sided pneumonia: a case report

Inga Ziemele (Coresponding Author), Man Xu, Anda Vilmane, Santa Rasa-Dzelzkaleja, Lea Hedman, Klaus Hedman, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Zaiga Nora-Krukle, Modra Murovska, Dace Gardovska

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
3 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus 1 is a commonly detected human parvovirus. Many studies have shown human bocavirus 1 as a pathogen in association with acute respiratory tract infections in children. However, because human bocavirus 1 persists in the upper airways for extensive time periods after acute infection, the definition and diagnostics of acute human bocavirus 1 infection is challenging. Until now, detection of human bocavirus 1 exclusively, high viral load in respiratory samples, and viremia have been associated with a clinical picture of acute respiratory illness. There are no studies showing detection of human bocavirus 1 messenger ribonucleic acid in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a diagnostic marker for acute lower respiratory tract infection. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 17-month-old Latvian boy who presented in intensive care unit with acute bilateral bronchiolitis, with a history of rhinorrhea and cough for 6 days and fever for the last 2 days prior to admission, followed by severe respiratory distress and tracheal intubation. Human bocavirus 1 was the only respiratory virus detected by a qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction panel. For the diagnosis of acute human bocavirus 1 infection, both molecular and serological approaches were used. Human bocavirus 1 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected simultaneously in nasopharyngeal aspirate, stool, and blood, as well as in the corresponding cell-free blood plasma by qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, revealing high DNA-copy numbers in nasopharyngeal aspirate and stool. Despite a low-load viremia, human bocavirus 1 messenger ribonucleic acid was found in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. For detection of human bocavirus 1-specific antibodies, non-competitive immunoglobulin M and competitive immunoglobulin G enzyme immunoassays were used. The plasma was positive for both human bocavirus 1-specific immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of human bocavirus 1 genomic DNA in blood plasma and human bocavirus 1 messenger ribonucleic acid in peripheral blood mononuclear cells together with human bocavirus 1-specific immunoglobulin M are markers of acute human bocavirus 1 infection that may cause life-threatening acute bronchiolitis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)290
Number of pages1
JournalJournal of Medical Case Reports
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Sep 2019

Keywords

  • Acute bronchiolitis
  • Children
  • Human bocavirus 1
  • Lower respiratory tract infection

Field of Science

  • 3.1 Basic medicine
  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database

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