An Overview of Adenoid Microbiome Using 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing-Based Metagenomic Analysis

Oļegs Sokolovs-Karijs (Coresponding Author), Monta Briviba, Rihards Saksis, Gunta Sumeraga, Francesca Girotto , Renars Erts, Jana Osīte, Angelika Krūmiņa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Background and Objectives: the upper respiratory tract harbors the highest bacterial density in the whole respiratory system. Adenoids, which are located in the nasopharynx, are a major site of bacterial colonies in the upper airways. Our goal was to use culture-independent molecular techniques to identify the breadth of bacterial diversity in the adenoid vegetations of children suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis and obstructive sleep apnea. Materials and methods: in total, 21 adenoid samples were investigated using amplification and sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Results: among the most common bacterial species found were Veillonella atypica, Fusobactrium nucelatum, Shaalia odontolytica, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Veillonella atypica and Fusbacterium nucelatum dominated the microbiome in all 21 samples, attributing to more than 60% of all detected genetic material. Conclusions: since both Veillonella atypica and Fusobacterium nucleatum are, predominantly, oral cavity and dental microorganisms, our findings may suggest oral microbiome migration deeper into the oropharynx and nasopharynx where these bacteria colonize adenoid vegetations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number920
JournalMedicina (Kaunas)
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jul 2022


  • adenoids;
  • microbiome
  • bacteria
  • 16s rRNA gene sequencing

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database

Patent expiration date

  • adenoids
  • microbiome
  • 16s rRNA sequencing
  • bacteria


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