An overview of cervical cancer epidemiology and prevention in the Baltic States

Una Kojalo, Anna Tisler, Kersti Parna, Anda Kivite-Urtane (Coresponding Author), Jana Zodzika, Mindaugas Stankunas, Nicholas Baltzer, Mari Nygard, Anneli Uuskula

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AIMS: To inform future Baltic States-specific policy analyses, we aimed to provide an overview of cervical cancer epidemiology and existing prevention efforts in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

METHODS: A structured desk review: we compiled and summarized data on current prevention strategies, population demography and epidemiology (high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and cervical cancer incidence and mortality over time) for each Baltic State by reviewing published literature and official guidelines, performing registry-based analyses using secondary data and having discussions with experts in each country.

RESULTS: We observed important similarities in the three Baltic States: high burden of the disease (high incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, changes in TNM (Classification of Malignant Tumors) stage distribution towards later stage at diagnosis), high burden of high-risk HPV in general population and suboptimal implementation of the preventive strategies as low screening and HPV vaccination coverage.

CONCLUSIONS: Cervical cancer remains a substantial health problem in the region and the efforts in addressing barriers by implementing a four-step plan for elimination cervical cancer in Europe should be made. This goal is achievable through evidence-based steps in four key areas: vaccination, screening, treatment, and public awareness.

Original languageEnglish
Article number660
Number of pages9
JournalBMC Public Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • Cervical cancer
  • Human papillomavirus
  • Prevention

Field of Science*

  • 3.3 Health sciences

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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