Anthropometric Evaluation of Mandibular Characteristics in the Medieval Kurdish Population of Girê Kortikê: Sex-Based Variations and Comparative Analysis

Vatan Kavak, Māra Pilmane, Dzintra Kažoka (Coresponding Author), Edgars Edelmers (Coresponding Author), Omer Satici

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Introduction: This research seeks to develop population-specific standards for skeletal sex determination, focusing on the medieval Kurdish population of Girê Kortikê and the mandible, a skull component presenting the highest degree of sexual dimorphism. This is the first study of its kind for this population. The research's primary objectives were to conduct anthropometric evaluations of several mandibular characteristics within this population, assess sex-based variations, determine relationships between various mandibular sizes, and contrast these findings with other existing studies. Materials and methods: A total of 121 mandibles (55 women, 66 men) were measured using 14 distinct anthropometric techniques, applying Pearson correlation coefficients, student's t-test, and principal component analysis (PCA) for comparison. Results: The study examined and discussed disparities between some chosen mandibular measurements and data from other populations. Statistically significant sex differences (p < 0.05) and correlations were identified in 12 of the anthropological measurements. The research found that the greater the height of the symphysis (GNI), the higher the foramen mentale height (FBB). Average measurements significantly deviated from the medieval Kurdish population when compared to populations in Santa Maria Xigui, Mexico (XIG), and Mexico City (MEX). Conclusion: No correlation was found between the height of the mandibular body (HML) and the mandible length (MLT). The study suggested distinct mandibular angle (MAN) sizes between sexes, indicating unique characteristics within the Girê Kortikê population, warranting further research for a more comprehensive evaluation. In conclusion, these findings emphasize the mandible's anatomical, historical, and cultural relevance in sex determination within the Girê Kortikê population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100255
Number of pages8
JournalTranslational Research in Anatomy
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


  • Girê Kortikê
  • Mandible
  • Measurements
  • Medieval Kurdish population

Field of Science*

  • 3.1 Basic medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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