Antibiotic policies in Central Eastern Europe

Milan Cizman, Bojana Beovic, Vladimir Krcmery, Bruno Barsic, Eda Tamm, Endre Ludwig, Mojimir Pelemis, Kliment Karovski, Pavel Grzesiowski, Dace Gardovska, Alla Volokha, Emma Keuleyan, Leonid Stratchounski, Carstina Dumitru, Leonid P. Titov, Vytantas Usonis, Peter Dvorák

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


To assess the antibiotic policies in Central Eastern European (CEE) countries, a questionnaire on the prevalence of resistance, antibiotic consumption data for ambulatory and hospital care and antibiotic policies, was mailed to national representatives. Data on antibiotic resistance and consumption of antibiotics at national levels are limited and vary considerably among countries. The importance of surveillance data in altering perceptions of the prevalence of resistance is shown by the comparison of surveillance data and interview data. Interview data without surveillance data produced the widest range of estimates of the prevalence of resistance in streptococcus pneumonia -5% in Lithuania and 82% in Belarus. The average consumption of antibiotics in ambulatory care in eight CEE countries in 2001 was 19.35 defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants per day, (range 13.1 - 24.8 DDD) and in hospitals in six CEE countries was 2.2 DDD/1000 inhabitants per day (range 1.3-4.5). Over the counter sales of antibiotics are available in some countries. Antibiotic policy interventions do not exist or only apply to specific problems or interventions. Better implementation of antibiotic interventions and education on antibiotic use should be a high priority in this region. An effective strategy requires close co-operation, consultations and partnership at national and international level in particular, via existing international organisations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-204
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Antibiotic consumption
  • Antibiotic policies
  • Central Eastern Europe
  • Prevalence of resistance

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine
  • 3.3 Health sciences

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


Dive into the research topics of 'Antibiotic policies in Central Eastern Europe'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this