Anxiety Screening among the General Population of Latvia and Associated Factors

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the point prevalence of at least mild anxiety symptoms and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder in the Latvian general population, and to analyze the associated factors. Materials and Methods: A computer-assisted face-to-face survey was conducted in 2019–2020 with a multistage stratified probability sample of the Latvian general adult population (n = 2687). Anxiety was assessed using the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale; a score of ≥5 was defined as indicating the presence of mild symptoms of anxiety, and a score of ≥10 as the cutoff for identifying cases of generalized anxiety disorder. The Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) and MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) modules were used for assessing comorbid conditions. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted. Results: The point prevalence of mild anxiety symptoms was 10.9%. The point prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder symptoms was 3.9%. Higher odds of mild anxiety symptoms were detected in respondents of a young age (vs. 65 y.o. and older, aOR 3.1, p < 0.001), unmarried respondents (vs. married/cohabiting, aOR 1.5, p = 0.02), those living in the capital city (aOR 1.6, p = 0.008) or rural areas (aOR 1.5, p = 0.03) (vs. other towns), respondents with poor self-rated health (vs. good, aOR 2.6, p < 0.001), and diagnosed alcohol use disorder (aOR 1.9, p < 0.001), suicidal behavior (aOR 2.4, p < 0.001), and symptoms of depression (aOR 6.4, p < 0.001) (vs. no such conditions). As for symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, female sex (vs. males, aOR 2.5, p = 0.003), age below 44 years (vs. 65+, aOR 6.2, p = 0.002), average self-rated health (vs. good, aOR 2.6, p = 0.005), and poor self-rated health (vs. good, aOR 5.3, p < 0.001), together with comorbid suicidal behavior (aOR 6.1, p < 0.001) and symptoms of depression (aOR 43.4, p < 0.001) (vs. no such conditions), increased the odds. Conclusions: Young age, poor self-rated health, and comorbid symptoms of depression and suicidal behavior were significant factors associated with symptoms of both mild anxiety and generalized anxiety disorder. Being unmarried, living in the capital city or rural areas, and alcohol use disorder were associated with mild anxiety symptoms alone. Female sex was associated with generalized anxiety disorder symptoms alone.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1163
Pages (from-to)1163
Number of pages16
JournalMedicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 26 Aug 2022


  • generalized anxiety disorder
  • anxiety
  • point prevalence
  • ssociated factors
  • epidemiology
  • general population

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


Dive into the research topics of 'Anxiety Screening among the General Population of Latvia and Associated Factors'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this