Assessment of Occupational Exposures in the 3D Printing: Current Status and Future Prospects

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3D (three-dimensional) printing technologies are widespread and rapidly evolving, creating new specific working conditions, and their importance has been highlighted by increasing publications in recent years. The report provides a compilation of current information on 3D technologies, materials, and measurements, considering the determination of the potential actual exposure dose of chemicals through airborne inhalation and dermal exposure, including workers’ exhaled breath condensate and urine data. Noninvasive assessment methods are becoming increasingly popular, as they are painless, easy to perform, and inexpensive. Investigation of biomarkers reflecting pulmonary inflammation and local and systemic oxidative stress in exhaled breath, exhaled breath condensate, and urine are among them. It is also important to consider the occupational health and safety risks associated with the use of various new materials in 3D printing, which are associated with skin irritation and sensitivity risks. Therefore, EDI (estimated daily intake) calculations for assessment of the potential occupational health risk purposes via inhalation and dermal exposure are critical in future. The assessment of occupational exposure and health risks of 3D printing processes is essential for the proper identification, control, and prevention of working conditions, also for the diagnosis and monitoring of occupational diseases among workers to improve public health and well-being in general.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in 3D Printing
EditorsDr. Ashutosh Sharma
Pages92 -127
Number of pages34
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-80355-845-5
Publication statusPublished - 3 May 2023

Publication series

NameIn tech Open

Field of Science*

  • 2.5 Materials engineering
  • 3.4 Medical biotechnology
  • 2.10 Nano-technology

Publication Type*

  • 3.2. Articles or chapters in other proceedings other than those included in 3.1., with an ISBN or ISSN code


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