BCG-SSI® vaccine-associated lymphadenitis: Incidence and management

Arnis Engelis, Mohit Kakar, Roberts Meikšāns, Aigars Petersons

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and objective There is a high incidence of childhood tuberculosis in Latvia, including children aged less than 1 year, while BCG-associated lymphadenitis is one of the most frequent adverse events requiring surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of purulent BCG adenitis through-out the population of Latvia after the introduction of BCG-SSI® vaccine and to evaluate the treatment results. Material and methods The study included 194 patients. All patients had received the BCG-SSI® vaccine during the first week of life routinely or at a later time according to the indications. The indications for surgical treatment were lymph node destruction also affecting the skin. All patients in this study received surgical treatment – the affected lymph node extirpation. Results The mean age of the patients was 5.12 ± 0.96 months. A total of 172 patients had purulent axillar lymphadenitis, 14 had purulent supraclavicular lymphadenitis, 8 patients had lymphadenitis at both localizations. During the whole study period the incidence of BCG adenitis varied from 0.02% to 0.36%, while the mean rate was 0.11% ± 0.08% from 184,068 vaccinated children during the study period. We observed an increasing trend in the incidence of BCG lymphadenitis during the study period. The primary and complete healing rate at the end of period was 99.5% (n = 193) following an affected lymph node extirpation. The mean hospitalization time after the operation was 3.71 ± 0.18 days. Conclusions The incidence of BCG-SSI® vaccine associated purulent lymphadenitis varied widely with an increasing trend, followed by the return to the product characteristic limits. Indications for the surgical treatment should not be changed. Extirpation of the purulent BCG adenitis is a safe treatment method and leads to the primary wound healing in the majority of cases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-191
Number of pages5
JournalMedicina (Lithuania)
Volume52
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Keywords*

  • BCG-SSI vaccine
  • Complications
  • Lymphadenitis
  • Purulent BCG adenitis

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database

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