Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis

Daina Pastare (Coresponding Author), Mohamed Ridha Bennour, Elīna Polunosika, Guntis Karelis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Downloads (Pure)


The search for an ideal multiple sclerosis biomarker with good diagnostic value, prognostic reference and an impact on clinical outcome has yet to be realized and is still ongoing. The aim of this review is to establish an overview of the frequent biomarkers for multiple sclerosis that exist to date. The review summarizes the results obtained from electronic databases, as well as thorough manual searches. In this review the sources and methods of biomarkers extraction are described; in addition to the description of each biomarker, determination of the prognostic, diagnostic, disease monitoring and treatment response values besides clinical impact they might possess. We divided the biomarkers into three categories according to the achievement method: laboratory markers, genetic-immunogenetic markers and imaging markers. We have found two biomarkers at the time being considered the gold standard for MS diagnostics. Unfortunately, there does not exist a single solitary marker being able to present reliable diagnostic value, prognostic value, high sensitivity and specificity as well as clinical impact. We need more studies to find the best biomarker for MS.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
JournalThe Open Immunology Journal
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Imaging
  • Genetic-immunogenetic
  • Biomarkers
  • Magnetic resonance
  • Laboratory

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.4. Reviewed scientific article published in Latvia or abroad in a scientific journal with an editorial board (including university editions)


Dive into the research topics of 'Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this