Changes of the facial width during growth

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstractpeer-review


Assess the facial width changes from the age of 11.1 until 15.3 years in the Latvian population. The sample (56 males and 45 females) was taken from the growth study at Riga Stradins University – randomly chosen children who had been born in 2002. 3dMD face scanner was used to obtain 3D facial images, and 21 landmarks were identified. All facial shapes were registered using Procrustes analysis. The distances between mid-endocanthion (m-en) and several facial landmarks were measured in three dimensions. Facial width was measured between several bilateral landmarks in the upper and lower facial regions. The inner canthal distance and philtrum width in girls showed the least growth (about 1 mm) during the observation period. The interalar distance in boys showed the greatest growth (about 4.5mm). Different structures of the face had different growth patterns. For girls, growth of the nose and eyes ceased from the age of 13.9 years and that of the mouth, from 14.2 years. For boys, facial width ceased to grow from 13.8 years (eyes and mouth), but the nose continued to grow beyond the observation period. Boys had two peaks of growth between 13.1 and 13.7 years, while girls had one peak for most structures around 11.6 years. Boys had greater values of most facial widths than girls throughout the entire observation period. The boys and girls had similar lip widths until 13 years, when boys started to grow more, increasing the difference to 1.8 mm. The different facial width measurements show different growth rates and amounts in boys and girls between 11.1 and 15.3 years of age, providing the development of sexual dimorphism of the face during puberty.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 24 Mar 2021
EventRSU Research week 2021: Knowledge for Use in Practice - Rīga, Latvia
Duration: 24 Mar 202126 Mar 2021


ConferenceRSU Research week 2021: Knowledge for Use in Practice
Abbreviated titleRW2021
Internet address

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 3.4. Other publications in conference proceedings (including local)


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