Characterization of Cytokines and Proliferation Marker Ki-67 in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Recurring Nasal Polyps

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Highlights: What are the main findings? Cytokines are found in greater numbers in subepithelial connective tissue rather than epithelial cells in nasal polyps. IL-6 is an important factor in the pathogenesis of recurrent nasal polyps. What are the implications of the main finding? IL-6 was established as an important factor for further research in CRSwNP Possible future clinical implications, yet further research is necessary. Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a chronic inflammation of the mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses with the presence of polyps, affecting between 2.7% and 4.4% of the population. Cytokine analysis has become important in research on inflammatory mechanisms in CRSwNP. Therefore, our aim is to investigate the complex appearance, relative distribution, and interlinks of IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and Ki-67 in CRSwNP. Methods: Samples of nasal polyps were obtained from 19 patients with previously diagnosed CRSwNP and the recurrence of polyps after previous surgeries. The control group consisted of samples from 17 otherwise healthy individuals with isolated nasal septum deviations. Tissues were stained for previously mentioned cytokines and Ki-67 immunohistochemically. Results: Polyp samples showed an increased presence of cytokines in subepithelial connective tissue and a decreased appearance in epithelium when compared to controls. There were several very strong, strong, and moderate correlations among factors. Conclusions: IL-6 strongly correlates with other cytokines as well as with the proliferation marker Ki-67, which suggests significant stimulation of this regulatory cytokine and its possible involvement in the pathogenesis of recurrent nasal polyps. IL-4, IL-7, IL-10, and IL-12 correlate with Ki-67, which suggests the possible involvement of these cytokines in tissue cell proliferation in the case of recurrent nasal polyps.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)451-466
Number of pages16
JournalAdvances in Respiratory Medicine
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • rhinosinusitis
  • nasal polyps
  • proliferation marker
  • cytokines

Field of Science*

  • 3.1 Basic medicine
  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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