Characterization of SHH, SOX3, WNT3A and WNT9B Proteins in Human Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip and Palate Tissue

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Orofacial clefts have been associated with specific cleft candidate genes which encode
regulatory proteins required for orofacial region development. Cleft candidate genes encode proteins involved with the cleft morphopathogenesis process, but their exact interactions and roles are relatively unclear in human cleft tissue. This study evaluates the presence and correlations of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), SRY-Box Transcription Factor 3 (SOX3), Wingless-type Family Member 3A (WNT3A) and 9B (WNT9B) protein containing cells in different cleft tissue. Non-syndromic cleft-affected tissue was subdivided into three groups—unilateral cleft lip (UCL) (n = 36), bilateral cleft lip (BCL) (n = 13), cleft palate (CP) (n = 26). Control tissue was obtained from five individuals. Immunohistochemistry was implemented. The semi-quantitative method was used. Non-parametric statistical methods were applied. A significant decrease in SHH was found in BCL and CP tissue. SOX3, WNT3A and WNT9B had a significant decrease in all clefts. Statistically significant correlations were found. The significant decrease in SHH could be associated with BCL and CP pathogenesis. SOX3, WNT3A and WNT9B could have morphopathogenetic involvement in UCL, BCL, and CP. Similar correlations imply the presence of similar pathogenetic mechanisms in different cleft variations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number151
Number of pages22
JournalDentistry Journal
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jun 2023


  • cleft lip
  • cleft palate
  • cleft candidate genes
  • SHH
  • SOX3
  • WNT3A
  • WNT9B

Field of Science*

  • 3.1 Basic medicine
  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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