Cleft Candidate Genes and Their Products in Human Unilateral Cleft Lip Tissue

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Cleft lip and palate are common congenital pathologies that affect the human population worldwide. The formation of cleft lip is associated with multiple genes and their coded proteins, which regulate the development of craniofacial region, but the exact role of these factors is not always clear. The use of morphological studies for evaluation of human cleft-affected tissue has been limited because of insufficiency of available pathological material. The aim of this study was to detect and compare the immunohistochemical expression of cleft candidate gene coded proteins (DLX4, MSX2, HOXB3, SHH, PAX7, SOX3, WNT3A, and FOXE1) in the non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip patient
tissue and control group tissue. A semiquantitative counting method was used to evaluate the tissue in biotin-streptavidin-stained slides. Statistically significant differences between the patient and control groups were found for the number of immunoreactive structures for SHH (p = 0.019) and FOXE1 (p = 0.011) in the connective tissue and SOX3 (p = 0.012) in the epithelium. Multiple statistically significant very strong and strong correlations were found between the immunoreactives
in cleft-affected tissue. These significant differences and various correlations indicate that multiple morphopathogenetic pathways are possibly involved in unilateral cleft lip pathogenesis. Therefore,
we further discuss these possible interactions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number26
Pages (from-to)26
Number of pages15
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • cleft lip
  • cleft candidate genes
  • gene proteins

Field of Science*

  • 3.1 Basic medicine
  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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