Comparison of outcome between blood culture positive and negative infective endocarditis patients undergoing cardiac surgery

Kristians Meidrops (Coresponding Author), Arina Zuravlova, Janis Davis Osipovs, Martins Kalejs, Valerija Groma, Eva Petrosina, Aigars Reinis, Eva Strike, Uga Dumpis, Andrejs Erglis, Peteris Stradins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Up to 30% or even more of all infective endocarditis (IE) cases are recognized as blood culture negative, meaning that the causative agent is left unidentified. The prompt diagnosis together with the identification of causative microorganism and targeted antibiotic treatment can significantly impact the prognosis of the disease and further patient’s health status. In some studies, blood culture negative endocarditis has been shown to be associated with delayed diagnosis, worse outcome and course of the disease, and a greater number of intra and postoperative complications. Methods: We retrospectively analysed the medical records of all patients who underwent cardiac surgery for endocarditis between years 2016 and 2019. The aim of this study was to analyse short and long-term mortality and differences of laboratory, clinical and echocardiography parameters in patients with blood culture positive endocarditis (BCPE) and blood culture negative endocarditis (BCNE) and its possible impact on the clinical outcome. Results: In our study population were 114 (55.1%) blood culture positive and 93 (44.9%) blood culture negative cases of infectious endocarditis. The most common pathogens in the blood culture positive IE group were S.aureus in 36 cases (31.6%), Streptococcus spp. in 27 (23.7%), E.faecalis in 24 (21.1%), and other microorganisms in 27 (23.7%). Embolic events were seen in 60 patients (28.9%). In univariate analyses, detection of microorganism, elevated levels of procalcitonin were found to be significantly associated with intrahospital death, however it did not reach statistical significance in multivariate analyses. Among microorganisms, S.aureus was significantly associated with intrahospital death in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusions: There are no statistically significant differences between groups of BCPE and BCNE in terms of intrahospital mortality, hospital and ICU stay or 3-year mortality. There were higher levels of procalcitonin in BCPE group, however procalcitonin failed to show independent association with mortality in multivariate analysis. The most common microorganism in the BCPE group was S.aureus. It was associated with independently higher intrahospital mortality when compared to other causative microorganisms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number147
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 May 2021

Keywords*

  • Blood culture negative
  • Blood culture positive
  • Infective endocarditis
  • Intrahospital mortality
  • Long-term mortality
  • Procalcitonin

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine
  • 3.3 Health sciences

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database

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