Cytokine Response Following SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Stimulation in Patients with Predominantly Antibody Deficiencies

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Predominantly antibody deficiencies (PADs) are inborn disorders characterized by immune dysregulation and increased susceptibility to infections. Response to vaccination, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), may be impaired in these patients, and studies on responsiveness correlates, including cytokine signatures to antigen stimulation, are sparse. In this study, we aimed to describe the spike-specific cytokine response following whole-blood stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides in patients with PAD (n = 16 with common variable immunodeficiency and n = 15 with selective IgA deficiency) and its relationship with the occurrence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during up to 10-month follow-up period. Spike-induced antibody and cytokine production was measured using ELISA (anti-spike IgG, IFN-γ) and xMAP technology (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, IL-17A, IL-21, TNF-α, TGF-β1). No difference was found in the production of cytokines between patients with PAD and controls. Anti-spike IgG and cytokine levels did not predict contraction of COVID-19. The only cytokine that distinguished between vaccinated and naturally infected unvaccinated PAD patients was IFN-γ (median 0.64 (IQR = 1.08) in vaccinated vs. 0.10 (IQR = 0.28) in unvaccinated). This study describes the spike-specific cytokine response to SARS-CoV-2 antigens, which is not predictive of contracting COVID-19 during the follow-up.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1146
Pages (from-to)1-23
Number of pages23
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 10 May 2023

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine
  • 3.1 Basic medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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