Cytokine Storm And COVID-19 Severity In Hospitalized And Non-Hospitalized Patients

Zaiga Nora-Krūkle, Anda Vilmane, Monta Ustinova, Janis Klovins

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstractpeer-review


Objectives. Cytokine storm in case of COVID-19 is considered to be one of the major causes of acute
respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure. It plays an important role in the
process of disease aggravation. Aim of the study was to characterize the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the
production of cytokines in patients with severe clinical symptoms and selected sets of samples from
patients with mild or no clinical symptoms. Materials and Methods. Cytokine panel (GM-CSF, IFN-γ,
IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, IL-18, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, PDGF-AB/BB, TNF-α, VEGF-A) was
created to determine the differences in cytokine levels in hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients
using the Luminex200 system. Plasma samples from 117 (60.7±16.5 years) hospitalized and 61
(43.8±15.2 years) - non-hospitalized patients were analysed. From those patients - 10 hospitalized
and 17 non-hospitalized were studied at 2 time points. The obtained results were analysed using GraphPad Prism 9.0. Results. Comparing hospitalized patients against outpatients results clearly
shows that most patients with severe COVID-19 exhibit markedly increased plasma levels of
pro-inflammatory cytokines and the statistically significant correlation between hospitalized patients
and outpatient for multiple cytokines: IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, IP-10, MCP-1, TNF-α and VEGF-A. IL-8,
IL-19, IP-10, PCP-1, MIP-1β were higher in patients who received supplemental oxygen than in those
who did not. Inpatients had higher levels of IL-18 and IL-8 cytokines in men than in women, while
PDGF levels were higher in women. No effect of gender on cytokine levels was observed in the
non-hospitalized group. Conclusions. Patients receiving oxygen supplementation had higher plasma
levels of IL-8, IL-18, IP-10, MCP1, and MIP-1α, indicating not only on virus-induced inflammatory
processes but also on possible damage of lung tissue, hart failure, neuroinflammatory processes
characterized by neuronal degeneration and on autoimmune processes.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jun 2021
Event1st Conference of the Society for Virology: Tackling Global Viral Epidemics - Online Conference, South Africa
Duration: 16 Jun 202118 Jun 2021
Conference number: 1


Conference1st Conference of the Society for Virology
Abbreviated titleWSV 2021
Country/TerritorySouth Africa
Internet address


  • Cytokine storm
  • Covid-19

Field of Science*

  • 1.6 Biological sciences
  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 3.4. Other publications in conference proceedings (including local)


Dive into the research topics of 'Cytokine Storm And COVID-19 Severity In Hospitalized And Non-Hospitalized Patients'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this