Cytokines and Defensins in Tissue Biopsies Obtained by Bronchoscopy from Patients with Post-Intubation Tracheal Stenosis

Zane Vitenberga-Verza, Māra Pilmane, Aurika Babjoniševa

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Aims: The objective of our study was to perform the routine analysis of bronchoscopically obtained tracheal samples to determine the appearance and relative distribution of cytokines and antimicrobial proteins in patients with post-intubation tracheal stenosis (PITS).
Study Design: Retrospective.
Place and Duration of Study: Rīga Stradiņš University, Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology,
Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital, between May 2014 and May 2015.
Methodology: Five patients with PITS were involved in this study. Tissue samples were obtained
by bronchoscopy from the upper part of trachea, then proceeded for routine histological staining
with hematoxylin and eosin. Interleukine-1 (IL-1), interleukine-10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor
alpha (TNFα), as well as beta defensin-2 (β def-2) were detected by use of immunohistochemistry
(IMH) method. The number of immunoreactive (positive) structures was graded semi-quantitatively.
Results: Squamous metaplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration and formation of granulation tissue
were observed in all cases. Significant expression of IL-10 and β def-2 was seen as various
number of immunoreactive structures in tracheal tissue. Only few scattered IL-1 and TNFα positive
macrophages were found in part of cases.
Conclusions: The leading role in pathogenesis of post-intubation tracheal stenosis is assumed to
be the chronic inflammation, fibrous scarring, as well as the remodeling of tracheal wall due to the
ischemia. Compensatory expression of antimicrobial peptide β def-2 and anti-inflammatory
cytokine IL-10 indicates the intense local tissue defense reactions. TNFα and IL-1 are not among
the most significant factors in pathogenesis of PITS.
Original languageEnglish
Article number19625
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalBritish Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2015


  • Cytokines
  • defensins
  • post-intubation tracheal stenosis

Field of Science*

  • 3.1 Basic medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.4. Reviewed scientific article published in Latvia or abroad in a scientific journal with an editorial board (including university editions)


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