Design, Fabrication, and Application of Mini-Scaffolds for Cell Components in Tissue Engineering

Vladimir A. Mironov (Coresponding Author), Fedor S. Senatov (Coresponding Author), Elizaveta V. Koudan, Frederico D.A.S. Pereira, Vladimir A. Kasyanov, Jose Mauro Granjeiro, Leandra Santos Baptista

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The concept of “lockyballs” or interlockable mini-scaffolds fabricated by two-photon polymerization from biodegradable polymers for the encagement of tissue spheroids and their delivery into the desired location in the human body has been recently introduced. In order to improve control of delivery, positioning, and assembly of mini-scaffolds with tissue spheroids inside, they must be functionalized. This review describes the design, fabrication, and functionalization of mini-scaffolds as well as perspectives on their application in tissue engineering for precisely controlled cell and mini-tissue delivery and patterning. The development of functionalized mini-scaffolds advances the original concept of “lockyballs” and opens exciting new prospectives for mini-scaffolds’ applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine and their eventual clinical translation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5068
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • functionalization
  • mini-scaffolds
  • synergistic approach
  • tissue spheroids

Field of Science*

  • 1.4 Chemical sciences
  • 2.5 Materials engineering

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


Dive into the research topics of 'Design, Fabrication, and Application of Mini-Scaffolds for Cell Components in Tissue Engineering'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this