Designer 'blueprint' for vascular trees: Morphology evolution of vascular tissue constructs

V. Mironov, J. Zhang, C. Gentile, K. Brakke, T. Trusk, K. Jakab, G. Forgacs, V. Kasyanov, R. P. Visconti, R. R. Markwald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Organ printing is a variant of the biomedical application of rapid prototyping technology or layer-by-layer additive biofabrication of 3D tissue and organ constructs using self-assembled tissue spheroids as building blocks. Bioengineering of perfusable intraorgan branched vascular trees incorporated into 3D tissue constructs is essential for the survival of bioprinted thick 3D tissues and organs. In order to design the optimal 'blueprint' for digital bioprinting of intraorgan branched vascular trees, the coefficients of tissue retraction associated with post-printing vascular tissue spheroid fusion and remodelling must be determined and incorporated into the original CAD. Using living tissue spheroids assembled into ring-like and tube-like vascular tissue constructs, the coefficient of tissue retraction has been experimentally evaluated. It has been shown that the internal diameter of ring-like and the height of tubular-like tissue constructs are significantly reduced during tissue spheroid fusion. During the tissue fusion process, the individual tissue spheroids also change their shape from ball-like to a conus-like form. A simple formula for the calculation of the necessary number of tissue spheroids for biofabrication of ring-like structures of desirable diameter has been deduced. These data provide sufficient information to design optimal CAD for bioprinted branched vascular trees of desirable final geometry and size.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-74
Number of pages12
JournalVirtual and Physical Prototyping
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Organ printing
  • Tissue fusion
  • Tissue spheroids
  • Vascular tree

Field of Science*

  • 2.2 Electrical engineering, Electronic engineering, Information engineering
  • 2.6 Medical engineering
  • 2.5 Materials engineering

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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