Determinants of Anxiety in the General Latvian Population During the COVID-19 State of Emergency

Jelena Vrublevska (Coresponding Author), Viktorija Perepjolkina, Kristine Martinsone, Jelena Kolesnikova, Ilona Krone, Daria Smirnova, Konstantinos N. Fountoulakis, Elmars Rancans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
7 Downloads (Pure)


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and its restrictive public health measures have seriously affected mental health of society. Social, psychological, and health-related factors have been linked to anxiety in the general population.
Aim: We investigate the association of various sociopsychological and health-related determinants of anxiety and identify the predicting factors for anxiety in the general population during the COVID-19 state of emergency from in Latvia.
Methods: We conducted an online survey using a randomized stratified sample of the general adult population in July 2020 for 3 weeks. Anxiety symptoms were measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S). Sociodemographic, health-related, sociopsychological characteristics and suicidality were identified using the structured questionnaire. The statistical analysis included Pearson's chi-square test, post hoc analysis, and binomial logistic regression.
Results: The weighted study sample included 2,608 participants. The mean STAY-S score of the total sample was 22.88 ± 12.25. In the total sample, 15.2% (n = 398) of participants were classified as having anxiety. The odds ratio (OR) of having anxiety was higher in females (OR = 2.44; 95% CI 1.75–3.33) and people who had experienced mental health problems in the past (OR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.03–2.04), had suicide attempt in the past (OR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.08–2.59), were worried about their health status due to COVID-19 (OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.36–1.16), were worried about stigmatization from others if infected with COVID-19 (OR = 1.18; 95% CI 1.03–1.35), were worried about information regarding COVID-19 from the Internet (OR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.08–1.43), persons who were lonely (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.54–2.34), and persons with negative problem orientation (OR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.06–1.51). Protective factors were identified as having good self-rated general health (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.58–0.81), maintaining a daily routine (OR = 0.74, 95 % CI 0.61–0.90), having financial stability (OR = 0.66, 95 % CI 0.55–0.79), and having good psychological resilience (OR = 0.90, 95 % CI 0.87–0.94).
Conclusions: This is the first study to report a prevalence of anxiety in the general population of Latvia. Certain factors that predict anxiety, as well as protective factors were identified.
Original languageEnglish
Article number854812
JournalFrontiers in Public Health
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • anxiety
  • Covid-19
  • pandemic
  • General population
  • mental health
  • predictors

Field of Science*

  • 5.1 Psychology
  • 3.3 Health sciences

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


Dive into the research topics of 'Determinants of Anxiety in the General Latvian Population During the COVID-19 State of Emergency'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this