Device-based therapies as a boost of conventional treatment in dry eye disease

Alfredo Borgia, Raffaele Raimondi, Giovanni Fossati, Francesco Paolo De Rosa, Vito Romano, Davide Borroni, Luca Vigo, Vincenzo Scorcia, Giuseppe Giannaccare (Coresponding Author)

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    6 Citations (Scopus)


    Introduction: Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial chronic condition with a broad spectrum of symptoms that can affect daily activities and quality of life. Areas covered: New treatment approaches that target more systematically distinct parts of the pathophysiology would present new potential to effectively regulate signs and symptoms of DED. In this review, a comprehensive list of device-based treatments has been provided, according to their mechanism of action. Expert opinion: Given the variability and complexity of DED, adjuvant treatments should be considered as a boost for patients who do not respond to first-line therapy. Most of those devices primarily target meibomian glands, using heat or mechanical energy to restore normal meibum flow. Although several treatments have been discussed in this review, further studies are needed to identify new options, evaluate current therapies in randomized clinical trials more extensively, and identify which subtypes of DED could benefit from any given therapy.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)387-393
    Number of pages7
    JournalExpert Review of Ophthalmology
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 2022


    • Dry eye disease
    • eyelid
    • intense pulsed light
    • low level light therapy
    • meibomian gland dysfunction
    • treatment

    Field of Science*

    • 3.2 Clinical medicine
    • 2.6 Medical engineering

    Publication Type*

    • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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