Efficacy and Safety of Darolutamide in Patients with Nonmetastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Stratified by Prostate-specific Antigen Doubling Time: Planned Subgroup Analysis of the Phase 3 ARAMIS Trial

Martin Bögemann (Coresponding Author), Neal D. Shore, Matthew R. Smith, Teuvo L.J. Tammela, Albertas Ulys, Egils Vjaters, Sergey Polyakov, Mindaugas Jievaltas, Murilo Luz, Boris Alekseev, Thierry Lebret, Martin Schostak, Frank Verholen, Marie Aude Le Berre, Shankar Srinivasan, Jorge Ortiz, Ateesha F. Mohamed, Toni Sarapohja, Karim Fizazi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Patients with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC) have a high risk of progression to metastatic disease, particularly if their prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) is ≤6 mo. However, patients remain at a high risk with a PSADT of >6 mo. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of darolutamide versus placebo in patients stratified by PSADT >6 or ≤6 mo. Design, setting, and participants: A planned subgroup analysis of a global multicenter, double-blind, randomized, phase 3 trial in men with nmCRPC and PSADT ≤10 mo was conducted. Intervention: Patients were randomized 2:1 to oral darolutamide 600 mg twice daily or placebo, while continuing androgen-deprivation therapy. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The primary endpoint was metastasis-free survival (MFS). Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and times to pain progression, first cytotoxic chemotherapy, and symptomatic skeletal events. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using validated prostate-relevant tools. Safety was recorded throughout the study. Results and limitations: Of 1509 patients enrolled, 469 had PSADT >6 mo (darolutamide n = 286; placebo n = 183) and 1040 had PSADT ≤6 mo (darolutamide n = 669; placebo n = 371). Baseline characteristics were balanced between subgroups. Darolutamide significantly prolonged MFS versus placebo in both subgroups (unstratified hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: PSADT >6 mo, 0.38 [0.26–0.55]; PSADT ≤6 mo, 0.41 [0.33–0.52]). OS and other efficacy and QoL endpoints favored darolutamide with significant improvement over placebo in both subgroups. The incidence of adverse events, including events commonly associated with androgen receptor inhibitors (fractures, falls, hypertension, and mental impairment), and discontinuations due to adverse events were low and similar to placebo. Limitations include small subgroup populations. Conclusions: In patients with nmCRPC and PSADT >6 mo (maximum 10 mo), darolutamide provided a favorable benefit/risk ratio, characterized by significant improvements in MFS, OS, and other clinically relevant endpoints; maintenance of QoL; and favorable tolerability. Patient summary: In patients with prostate cancer that has stopped responding to standard hormonal therapy (indicated by an increase in prostate-specific antigen [PSA] levels), there is a risk that the cancer will spread to other parts of the body. This risk is highest when the time it takes for the PSA level to double (ie, “PSA doubling time” [PSADT]) is less than 6 mo. However, there is still a risk that the cancer will spread even if the PSADT is longer than 6 mo. In a group of patients whose PSADT was more than 6 mo but no more than 10 mo, treatment with darolutamide slowed the cancer spread and allowed them to live longer than patients who received placebo (inactive drug). Darolutamide treatment did not cause many side effects and helped maintain patients’ quality of life without disruptions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)212-221
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Urology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Androgen receptor inhibitor
  • Darolutamide
  • Metastasis-free survival
  • Nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer
  • Overall survival
  • Prostate-specific antigen doubling time
  • Quality of life

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine
  • 3.1 Basic medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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