Endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations using a liquid embolic agent: Results of a prospective, multicentre study (BRAVO)

L. Pierot, C. Cognard, D. Herbreteau, H. Fransen, W. J. Van Rooij, E. Boccardi, A. Beltramello, N. Sourour, K. Kupcs, A. Biondi, A. Bonafé, W. Reith, A. Casasco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

107 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new liquid embolic agent in brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVMs) embolisation. Methods: A prospective, multicentre series was conducted at 11 interventional centres in Europe to evaluate embolisation of bAVMs with the new liquid embolic agent. Technical conditions, complications, clinical outcome and anatomical results were independently analysed. Results: From December 2005 to December 2008, 117 patients (72 male; 45 female, aged 18-75 years) were included. Clinical presentation was mostly haemorrhage (34.2 %) and seizures (28.2 %). Most AVMs were located in the brain hemispheres (85.5 %). AVMs were <3 cm in 52.1 % of patients and ≥3 cm in 47.9 %. Morbidity was observed in 6/117 patients (5.1 %), related to haemorrhagic events in 2 cases and non-haemorrhagic complications in 4 cases. Five patients (4.3 %) died in relation to the treatment (bleeding in 4 patients and extensive venous thrombosis in 1). Complete occlusion of the AVM by embolisation alone was obtained in 23.5 % of patients. Complementary treatment was performed in 82.3 % of patients with partial AVM occlusion, mostly radiosurgery. Conclusions: In this prospective, multicentre, European, observational series, the new liquid embolic agent proved to be suitable for BAVM embolisation, with acceptable morbidity and mortality and good efficacy. Key Points: • Numerous interventional techniques have been used to embolise brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). • This prospective multicentre study demonstrates the suitability of a liquid embolic agent. • The safety of treatment using Onyx is acceptable. • Such embolisation leads to complete AVM occlusion in 23.5 % of patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2838-2845
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Radiology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Brain arteriovenous malformations
  • Embolisation
  • Endovascular treatment
  • Onyx
  • Radiosurgery
  • Surgical treatment

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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