Evaluating the Expression of Candidate Homeobox Genes and Their Role in Local-Site Inflammation in Mucosal Tissue Obtained from Children with Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip and Palate

Nityanand Jain (Coresponding Author), Māra Pilmane

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Abstract

Craniofacial development including palatogenesis is a complex process which requires an orchestrated and spatiotemporal expression of various genes and factors for proper embryogenesis and organogenesis. One such group of genes essential for craniofacial development is the homeobox genes, transcriptional factors that are commonly associated with congenital abnormalities. Amongst these genes, DLX4, HOXB3, and MSX2 have been recently shown to be involved in the etiology of non-syndromic cleft lip and palate. Hence, we investigated the gene and protein expression of these genes in normal and cleft affected mucosal tissue obtained from 22 children, along with analyzing their role in promoting local-site inflammation using NF-κB. Additionally, we investigated the role of PTX3, which plays a critical role in tissue remodeling and wound repair. We found a residual gene and protein expression of DLX4 in cleft mucosa, although no differences in gene expression levels of HOXB3 and MSX2 were noted. However, a significant increase in protein expression for these genes was noted in the cleft mucosa (p < 0.05), indicating increased cellular proliferation. This was coupled with a significant increase in NF-κB protein expression in cleft mucosa (p < 0.05), highlighting the role of these genes in promotion of pro-inflammatory environment. Finally, no differences in gene expression of PTX3 were noted.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1135
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Personalized Medicine
Volume11
Publication statusPublished - 2 Nov 2021

Keywords*

  • cleft lip and palate
  • inflammation
  • immunohistochemistry
  • in-situ hybridization
  • HOXB3
  • DLX4
  • MSX2
  • PTX3

Field of Science*

  • 3.1 Basic medicine
  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database

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