Evaluation of limonite concretions by chemical and mineralogical composition, their formation model

Aigars Kokins, Juris Kostjukovs, Raimonds Meija

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The formation conditions of limonite, often iron-oxide and hydroxide containing mineraloids can be related to the crystallisation process of iron oxides minerals in weathering crust sedimentation. Iron oxides (goethite, hematite) and their various admixtures form lithification compounds. The research involved the analysis of limonite concretions and their thin sections, composition analysis and interpreting the conditions of formation. Thin sections were examined by the difference in the formation of limonite ageing, colour, interpreting composition and colour range of tones depending on available chemical elements during their formation process, as well as granular composition. Two limonite formation models were interpreted – surface crust formation on top of other mineral aggregate (by evaporating mineral water solution), as well as the formation of limonite in the process of alluvial deposit. It was concluded, that the variation of the limonite tint depends on the degree of iron oxidation state, admixture of elements, fine grain practices and the environment of the formation, including the amount of water available. The mineral composition of limonite can be homogeneous or with polyphase structure, without noticeable change in colour, at the same time, the materials of relatively uniform mineral composition can be cardinally different in colour range.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication18th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference "Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management", SGEM 2018
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes
Event18th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference (SGEM 2018): Ecology, Economics, Education and Legislation - Albena, Bulgaria
Duration: 2 Jul 20188 Jul 2018
Conference number: 18

Publication series

NameInternational Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference, SGEM
ISSN (Print)1314-2704


Conference18th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference (SGEM 2018)
Abbreviated titleSGEM 2018
Internet address


  • Earth colours
  • Iron oxide/hydroxides
  • Limonite
  • Ochre

Field of Science*

  • 1.5 Earth and related Environmental sciences
  • 1.3 Physical sciences

Publication Type*

  • 3.1. Articles or chapters in proceedings/scientific books indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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