Factors related to elevated vaginal pH in the first trimester of pregnancy

Jana Zodzika, Dace Rezeberga, Irina Jermakova, Olga Vasina, Natalija Vedmedovska, Gilbert Donders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Objective. To assess different bacterial and epidemiological factors associations with increased vaginal pH in the pregnant women population during the first trimester. Design. A cross-sectional, observational study. Setting. Three outpatient clinics in Riga. Population. From July 2009 until January 2010, 139 unselected consecutive pregnant women at the first prenatal visit. Methods. Pregnant women were submitted to an interview, vaginal examination and vaginal specimen collection for pH measurement and native microscopy. Main outcome measures. Vaginal pH â¥4.5 was considered as elevated. Abnormal bacterial microflora was classified according to Donders. Results. Elevated vaginal pH was significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis (p < 0.001), aerobic vaginitis (p < 0.001) and mixed aerobic vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis flora (p < 0.001) and presence of sperm cells in the smears (p= 0.024). Most cases with sperm were associated with abnormal vaginal flora. Normal lactobacillary morphotypes were more often found in the pH â4.4 group (p < 0.001), while leptosomic and short types were found more frequently with increased pH. Conclusions. Elevated vaginal pH is associated with different types of abnormal vaginal flora and the presence of sperm cells. ;copy 2010 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-46
Number of pages6
JournalActa Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2011


  • abnormal vaginal flora
  • native microscopy
  • pregnant women
  • Vaginal pH

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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