Five Year Follow-Up of Cryptogenic Stroke Patients Following Patent Foramen Ovale Closure

Agnete Teivāne (Coresponding Author), Kristaps Jurjāns, Ainārs Rudzītis, Krista Lazdovska, Artūrs Balodis, Evija Miglāne

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According to guidelines, patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure is recommended for secondary stroke prevention in patients with cryptogenic stroke. Paradoxial embolism from PFO-mediated right to left shunt has been described as the mechanism of stroke in these cases. The aim of the study was to determine whether PFO closure can be associated with improvement of complaints (headaches, fatigue, heart palpitations, dizziness, and visual impairment) and determine its long-term effectiveness on recurrent stroke risk reduction. Materials and Methods: A total of 103 patients were enrolled in a retrospective study and followed-up by phone up to five years after PFO closure. Standardized survey was conducted about their well-being, recurrent cerebrovascular events, and the use of prescribed medication. Patients were also followed up for residual shunts 24 h, 30 days, 1 year, and 2 years after PFO. The pathogenic ischemic stroke subtypes are determined using CCS (Causative Classification System for Ischemic Stroke). Results: Male patients accounted for 43.7% (n = 45). The mean age was—44.4 ± 13 (18–75). The most probable cause for cryptogenic stroke for 53.4% (n = 55) of patients with possible cardio-aortic embolism was PFO. Residual shunts were mostly observed in patients with Amplatzer occluder—87.5% (n = 14). There was correlation between residual shunt and increased risk of transient ischemic attack recurrence (p = 0.067). Five-years after PFO closure recurrent cerebrovascular events were reported in only 5.1% (n = 5) of patients, this difference is statistically relevant (p < 0.001). Out of 51 patients presented with complaints before PFO closure, 25.5% (n = 13) did not present with any complaints after PFO closure. Conclusions: PFO can be considered a possible risk factor for cryptogenic stroke. PFO closure is effective in reducing recurrent cerebrovascular events. Residual shunt after PFO closure increases the risk of transient ischemic attack recurrence. Amplatzer occluder device is associated with a higher risk for residual shunts after PFO closure. PFO closure can be associated with improvement of complaints
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
JournalMedical Sciences Forum
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jun 2021
Event1st International Electronic Conference on Medicine (IECMD) - online, Basel, Switzerland
Duration: 20 Jun 202130 Jun 2021
Conference number: 1


  • patent foramen ovale
  • patent foramen ovale closure
  • cryptogenic stroke
  • paradoxical embolism
  • recurrent stroke
  • ; secondary stroke prevention

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.4. Reviewed scientific article published in Latvia or abroad in a scientific journal with an editorial board (including university editions)


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