As clinicians, we understand the development of atherosclerosis as a consequence of cholesterol deposition and inflammation in the arterial wall, both being triggered by traditional risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidaemia or diabetes mellitus. Another risk factor is genetic predisposition, as indicated by the predictive value of a positive family history. However, we had to wait until recently to appreciate the abundant contribution of genetic variation to the manifestation of atherosclerosis. Indeed, by now 164 chromosomal loci have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to affect the risk of coronary artery disease. By design, practically all risk variants discovered by GWAS are frequently found in our population, resulting in the fact that principally every Western European individual carries between 130 and 190 risk alleles at the known, genome-wide significant loci (there are 0, 1, or 2 risk alleles per locus). One can assume that it is this widespread disposition that makes mankind susceptible to the detrimental effects of lifestyle factors, which likewise increase the risk of atherosclerosis. In this review, we summarize the recent genetic discoveries and attempt to group the multiple genetic risk variants in functional groups that may become actionable from a preventive or therapeutic perspective.
- Coronary artery disease
- Genome-wide association studies
Field of Science
- 3.1 Basic medicine
- 3.2 Clinical medicine
- 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database