Glycosaminoglycan, Antimicrobial Defence Molecule and Cytokine Appearance in tracheal Hyaline Cartilage of Healthy Humans

Arina Deņisova (Coresponding Author), Māra Pilmane, Pavlo Fedirko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Downloads (Pure)


Hyaline cartilage is an important tracheal structure, yet little is known about its molecular composition, complicating investigation of pathologies and replacement options. Our aim was to research tracheal hyaline cartilage structure, protective tissue factors and variations in healthy humans. The tissue material was obtained from 10 cadavers obtained from the Riga Stradins University Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology archive. Tissues were stained with Bismarck brown and PAS for glycosaminoglycans, and immunohistochemistry was performed for HBD-2, HBD-3, HBD-4, IL-10 and LL-37. The slides were inspected by light microscopy and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated. The extracellular matrix was positive across hyaline cartilage for PAS, yet Bismarck brown marked positive proliferation and growth zones. Numerous positive cells for both factors were found in all zones. All of the antimicrobial defence molecules and cytokines were found in a moderate number of cells, except in the mature cell zone with few positive cells. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient revealed strong and moderate correlations between studied factors. Hyaline cartilage is a tracheal defence structure with a moderate number of antimicrobial defence protein and cytokine immunoreactive cells as well as numerous glycosaminoglycan positive cells. The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans provide structural scaffolding and intercellular signalling. The correlations between the studied factors confirm the synergistic activity of them.

Original languageEnglish
Article number55
Pages (from-to)55
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • trachea
  • hyaline cartilage
  • glycosaminoglycans
  • human beta defensins
  • interleukin 10
  • human cathelicidin

Field of Science*

  • 3.1 Basic medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


Dive into the research topics of 'Glycosaminoglycan, Antimicrobial Defence Molecule and Cytokine Appearance in tracheal Hyaline Cartilage of Healthy Humans'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this