Histomorphology of the digestive system of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Latvia

I. Zitare, Māra Pilmane, A. Jemeljanovs

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The present study described the histo-morphological and immuno-histochemical characteristics of the digestive and neuroendocrine systems of captive wild domesticated red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Latvia. Results revealed that four (4) out of the five (5) animals studied showed keratinization of the rumen mucosa, with patchy loci of parakeratotic basal cells in the epithelium of the rumen wall. Neutrophilic leukocytes, lymphocytes and rare macrophages had infiltrated the mucosa and muscle layers of the rumen wall. Vacuolization of gangliocytes was seen in the intermuscular nerve plexus. It was observed that red deer’s small and large intestines were more innerved than the rumen, despite the variations in some parts of the enveloped mucosa. Small intestines were characterized by abundant expression of serotonin. Focal appearance of neurofilaments (NF)-containing nerve fibers was characteristic of the tissues of the rumen in the direction of the large intestine. Prominent apoptosis was also seen in the rumen. Moderate hepatocyte activity, a small number of apoptotic cells in the vena centralis area, with simultaneously distinct expression of interleukins and limited expression of degeneration enzymes was observed in the liver of the animals studied.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-106
JournalJournal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2013


  • Diffuse neuroendocrine system
  • digestive tract
  • red deer
  • morphology
  • Latvia

Field of Science*

  • 3.1 Basic medicine
  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.4. Reviewed scientific article published in Latvia or abroad in a scientific journal with an editorial board (including university editions)


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