HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Promotes Tumor Growth and Metastasis Formation via ROS-Dependent Upregulation of Twist

Ekaterina Bayurova, Juris Jansons, Dace Skrastina, Olga Smirnova, Dzeina Mezale, Anastasia Kostyusheva, Dmitry Kostyushev, Stefan Petkov, Philip Podschwadt, Vladimir Valuev-Elliston, Sviataslau Sasinovich, Sergey Korolev, Per Warholm, Anastasia Latanova, Elizaveta Starodubova, Amir Tukhvatulin, Oleg Latyshev, Renat Selimov, Pavel Metalnikov, Alexander KomarovOlga Ivanova, Tatiana Gorodnicheva, Sergey Kochetkov, Marina Gottikh, Ilze Strumfa, Alexander Ivanov, Ilya Gordeychuk, Maria Isaguliants

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

HIV-induced immune suppression results in the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS-associated malignancies including Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer. HIV-infected people are also at an increased risk of "non-AIDS-defining" malignancies not directly linked to immune suppression but associated with viral infections. Their incidence is increasing despite successful antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism behind this phenomenon remains unclear. Here, we obtained daughter clones of murine mammary gland adenocarcinoma 4T1luc2 cells expressing consensus reverse transcriptase of HIV-1 subtype A FSU_A strain (RT_A) with and without primary mutations of drug resistance. In in vitro tests, mutations of resistance to nucleoside inhibitors K65R/M184V reduced the polymerase, and to nonnucleoside inhibitors K103N/G190S, the RNase H activities of RT_A. Expression of these RT_A variants in 4T1luc2 cells led to increased production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, enhanced cell motility in the wound healing assay, and upregulation of expression of Vimentin and Twist. These properties, particularly, the expression of Twist, correlated with the levels of expression RT_A and/or the production of ROS. When implanted into syngeneic BALB/C mice, 4T1luc2 cells expressing nonmutated RT_A demonstrated enhanced rate of tumor growth and increased metastatic activity, dependent on the level of expression of RT_A and Twist. No enhancement was observed for the clones expressing mutated RT_A variants. Plausible mechanisms are discussed involving differential interactions of mutated and nonmutated RTs with its cellular partners involved in the regulation of ROS. This study establishes links between the expression of HIV-1 RT, production of ROS, induction of EMT, and enhanced propagation of RT-expressing tumor cells. Such scenario can be proposed as one of the mechanisms of HIV-induced/enhanced carcinogenesis not associated with immune suppression.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6016278
Number of pages29
JournalOxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Dec 2019

Field of Science

  • 3.3 Health sciences
  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database

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