Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health: An international study

Andrew T. Gloster (Coresponding Author), Demetris Lamnisos, Jeļena Ļubenko, Giovambattista Presti, Valeria Squatrito, Marios Constantinou, Christiana Nicolaou, Savvas Papacostas, Gokcen Aydin, Yuen Yu Chong, Wai Tong Chien, Ho Yu Cheng, Francisco J. Ruiz, Maria B. Garcia-Martin, Diana P. Obando-Posada, Miguel A. Segura-Vargas, Vasilis S. Vasiliou, Louise McHugh, Stefan Hoefer, Adriana BabanDavid Dias Neto, Ana Nunes da Silva, Jean-Louis Monestes, Javier Alvarez-Galvez, Marisa Paez-Blarrina, Francisco Montesinos, Sonsoles Valdivia-Salas, Dorottya Ori, Bartosz Kleszcz, Raimo Lappalainen, Iva Ivanovic, David Gosar, Frederick Dionne, Rhonda M. Merwin, Angelos P. Kassianos, Maria Karekla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered vast governmental lockdowns. The impact of these lockdowns on mental health is inadequately understood. On the one hand such drastic changes in daily routines could be detrimental to mental health. On the other hand, it might not be experienced negatively, especially because the entire population was affected.
Methods
The aim of this study was to determine mental health outcomes during pandemic induced lockdowns and to examine known predictors of mental health outcomes. We therefore surveyed n = 9,565 people from 78 countries and 18 languages. Outcomes assessed were stress, depression, affect, and wellbeing. Predictors included country, sociodemographic factors, lockdown characteristics, social factors, and psychological factors.
Results
Results indicated that on average about 10% of the sample was languishing from low levels of mental health and about 50% had only moderate mental health. Importantly, three consistent predictors of mental health emerged: social support, education level, and psychologically flexible (vs. rigid) responding. Poorer outcomes were most strongly predicted by a worsening of finances and not having access to basic supplies.
Conclusions
These results suggest that on whole, respondents were moderately mentally healthy at the time of a population-wide lockdown. The highest level of mental health difficulties were
found in approximately 10% of the population. Findings suggest that public health initiatives should target people without social support and those whose finances worsen as a result of the lockdown. Interventions that promote psychological flexibility may mitigate the impact of
the pandemic.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0244809
Number of pages20
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume15
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2020

Field of Science

  • 3.3 Health sciences

Publication Type

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database

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