International comparison of glycaemic control in people with type 1 diabetes: an update and extension

the Scottish Diabetes Research Network Epidemiology Group, Ieva Strēle (Under clarification)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims: To update and extend a previous cross-sectional international comparison of glycaemic control in people with type 1 diabetes.

Methods: Data were obtained for 520,392 children and adults with type 1 diabetes from 17 population and five clinic-based data sources in countries or regions between 2016 and 2020. Median HbA1c (IQR) and proportions of individuals with HbA1c < 58 mmol/mol (<7.5%), 58-74 mmol/mol (7.5-8.9%) and ≥75 mmol/mol (≥9.0%) were compared between populations for individuals aged <15, 15-24 and ≥25 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of HbA1c < 58 mmol/mol (<7.5%) relative to ≥58 mmol/mol (≥7.5%), stratified and adjusted for sex, age and data source. Where possible, changes in the proportion of individuals in each HbA1c category compared to previous estimates were calculated.

Results: Median HbA1c varied from 55 to 79 mmol/mol (7.2 to 9.4%) across data sources and age groups so a pooled estimate was deemed inappropriate. OR (95% CI) for HbA1c < 58 mmol/mol (<7.5%) were 0.91 (0.90-0.92) for women compared to men, 1.68 (1.65-1.71) for people aged <15 years and 0.81 (0.79-0.82) aged15-24 years compared to those aged ≥25 years. Differences between populations persisted after adjusting for sex, age and data source. In general, compared to our previous analysis, the proportion of people with an HbA1c < 58 mmol/l (<7.5%) increased and proportions of people with HbA1c ≥ 75 mmol/mol (≥9.0%) decreased.

Conclusions: Glycaemic control of type 1 diabetes continues to vary substantially between age groups and data sources. While some improvement over time has been observed, glycaemic control remains sub-optimal for most people with Type 1 diabetes.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14766
Number of pages12
JournalDiabetic Medicine
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 10 Dec 2021


  • HbA1c; glycaemic control; registers of people with diabetes; type 1 diabetes

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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