International standards for programmes of training in intensive care medicine in Europe

A. Bullock, J.D. Wilde, J.F. Bion, CoBaTrICE Collaboration, Sigita Kazūne (Member of the Working Group)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


PURPOSE: To develop internationally harmonised standards for programmes of training in intensive care medicine (ICM).

METHODS: Standards were developed by using consensus techniques. A nine-member nominal group of European intensive care experts developed a preliminary set of standards. These were revised and refined through a modified Delphi process involving 28 European national coordinators representing national training organisations using a combination of moderated discussion meetings, email, and a Web-based tool for determining the level of agreement with each proposed standard, and whether the standard could be achieved in the respondent's country.

RESULTS: The nominal group developed an initial set of 52 possible standards which underwent four iterations to achieve maximal consensus. All national coordinators approved a final set of 29 standards in four domains: training centres, training programmes, selection of trainees, and trainers' profiles. Only three standards were considered immediately achievable by all countries, demonstrating a willingness to aspire to quality rather than merely setting a minimum level. Nine proposed standards which did not achieve full consensus were identified as potential candidates for future review.

CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary set of clearly defined and agreed standards provides a transparent framework for assuring the quality of training programmes, and a foundation for international harmonisation and quality improvement of training in ICM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)385-393
Number of pages9
JournalIntensive Care Medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Accreditation
  • Clinical Competence/standards
  • Consensus
  • Critical Care
  • Curriculum/standards
  • Delphi Technique
  • Education, Medical, Graduate/standards
  • Europe
  • Group Processes
  • Humans
  • International Cooperation
  • Quality Control
  • Specialization

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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