Lead-related infective endocarditis in Latvia: A single centre experience

Nikolajs Nesterovics, Georgijs Nesterovics (Coresponding Author), Peteris Stradins, Martins Kalejs, Janis Ansabergs, Maris Blumbergs, Aija Maca, Ginta Kamzola, Aivars Lejnieks, Oskars Kalejs, Andrejs Erglis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)


Background and Objectives: Over the last five decades cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) have become established as the mainstay for the treatment of permanent bradycardias, chronic heart failure and dangerous heart rhythm disturbances. These devices improve survival and quality of life in many patients. However, infections associated with CIED implantation, particularly lead-related infective endocarditis (LRIE), can offset all benefits and make more harm than good for the patient. To date, there are no other studies in Latvia, addressing patients with lead-related infective endocarditis. The objective of this study was to identify the most common pathogens associated with LRIE and their antimicrobial resistance and to identify possible risk factors of patients who present with LRIE. Materials and Methods: The study was performed retrospectively at Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital (PSCUH). The study included patients who were referred to PSCUH due to LRIE for lead extraction. Patients were identified from procedural journals. Information about isolated microorganisms, patient comorbidities and visual diagnostics data was taken from patient records. Results: Forty-nine patients with CIED related infective endocarditis were included in the study, 34 (69.4%) were male, median age of all patients was 65.0 (50.5–73.0) years, median hospital stay was 15.5 (22.0–30.5) days. Successful and complete lead extraction was achieved in all patients. Thirty-two (65.3%) had received antibiotics prior to blood sample. Only in 31 (63.3%) positive culture results were seen. The most common isolated pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (23.5%) and coagulase negative staphylococci (23.5%). Other bacteria were isolated considerably less often. The atrial lead was most common location for lead vegetations, seen in 50.0% of cases. Five (10.2%) patients have died due to the disease. Conclusions: Lead-related infective endocarditis is a major complication of cardiac implantable electronic devices with considerable morbidity and mortality, which in our study was as high as 10.2%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number566
Number of pages9
JournalMedicina (Lithuania)
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2019


  • Cardiac device infection
  • Cardiac implantable electronic devices
  • CIED complication
  • Lead-related infective endocarditis
  • LRIE mortality

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine
  • 3.3 Health sciences

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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