Long-Term Immunological Memory of SARS-CoV-2 Is Present in Patients with Primary Antibody Deficiencies for up to a Year after Vaccination

Zane Lucāne, Baiba Šlisere, Lota Ozola, Dmitrijs Rots, Sindija Paprite, Baiba Vilne, Linda Gailīte, Nataļja Kurjāne (Coresponding Author)

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Abstract

Some studies have found increased coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)-related morbidity and mortality in patients with primary antibody deficiencies. Immunization against COVID-19 may, therefore, be particularly important in these patients. However, the durability of the immune response remains unclear in such patients. In this study, we evaluated the cellular and humoral response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigens in a cross-sectional study of 32 patients with primary antibody deficiency (n = 17 with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and n = 15 with selective IgA deficiency) and 15 healthy controls. Serological and cellular responses were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and interferon-gamma release assays. The subsets of B and T lymphocytes were measured using flow cytometry. Of the 32 patients, 28 had completed the vaccination regimen with a median time after vaccination of 173 days (IQR = 142): 27 patients showed a positive spike-peptide-specific antibody response, and 26 patients showed a positive spike-peptide-specific T-cell response. The median level of antibody response in CVID patients (5.47 ratio (IQR = 4.08)) was lower compared to healthy controls (9.43 ratio (IQR = 2.13)). No difference in anti-spike T-cell response was found between the groups. The results of this study indicate that markers of the sustained SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific immune response are detectable several months after vaccination in patients with primary antibody deficiencies comparable to controls.
Original languageEnglish
Article number354
Number of pages13
JournalVaccines
Volume11
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 3 Feb 2023

Keywords*

  • inborn error of immunity;
  • antibody response
  • T-cell response
  • immune response
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • selective IgA deficiency
  • common variable immunodeficiency;
  • antibody deficiency

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine
  • 3.1 Basic medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.3. Anonymously reviewed scientific article published in a journal with an international editorial board and is available in another indexed database

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