Mehr als nur ein „Knöpfchen“ – der gynäkologische Blick auf die Klitoris

Translated title of the contribution: More than just a “button”—The gynecological perspective on the clitoris

Mandy Mangler (Coresponding Author), Kathrin Heise, Smilla Leßmann, Malgorzata Lanowska, Andreas D. Ebert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Knowledge of the actual anatomy and function of the clitoris has been underrepresented for a long time. Anatomical descriptions and illustrations existed but were scientifically disregarded for centuries. Even now anatomy books and textbooks are still dominated by incorrect depictions and inadequate functional descriptions of the clitoris, even though the knowledge about this complex organ is essential for the clinical practice in gynecology, obstetrics, urology and other specialist disciplines. From a special gynecological perspective, the sociocultural and medical history are presented, including misunderstandings and misconceptions. The correct anatomy and physiology are closely related to the rediscovery of the clitoris in research and practice as well as in the social perception. The relevance of the clitoris for contemporary medicine regarding sexuality, self-awareness, self-determination and therefore gender equity can be seen as a fundamental and also political issue.

Translated title of the contributionMore than just a “button”—The gynecological perspective on the clitoris
Original languageGerman
Pages (from-to)139-147
Number of pages9
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Gender equity
  • History of medicine
  • Personal autonomy
  • Sexuality
  • Social perception

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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