Mental Health and Associated Demographic and Occupational Factors among Health Care Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Latvia

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Background and Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the health care system. Front-line health care workers (HCWs) are at a higher risk of mental health adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of the symptoms of depression and anxiety and associated demographic and occupational factors among front-line HCWs in Latvia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative study was performed in a population of HCWs during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Latvia. The participants were interviewed between 28 April 2020 and 2 June 2020. Answers from 864 HCWs were obtained. The participants reported their demographics, work-related information, contacts with COVID-19-positive patients and completed two standardised questionnaires that assessed the symptoms of anxiety (GAD-7) and depression (PHQ-9). The gathered data were analysed by a chi-squared test and binary logistic regression. The data analysis was performed using SPSS v25. Results: A total of 209 (24.8%) participants had depression symptoms and 145 (17.2%) had anxiety symptoms. Health care workers older than 50 had a lower risk of both depression (OR 0.422 (95% CI, 0.262-0.680)) and anxiety (OR 0.468 (95% CI, 0.270-0.813)). General practitioners had more frequent symptoms of depression and anxiety than participants who worked at hospitals (32.8% (n = 63) versus 19.4% (n = 73) and 27.1% (n = 52) versus 10.3% (n = 39), respectively (p = 0.037; p < 0.000)). Working more than 48 h during the week was associated with a higher risk of depression (OR 2.222 (95% CI, 1.315-3.753)) and anxiety (OR 2.416 (95% CI, 1.272-4.586)). Conclusions: The vulnerability of the health care system before the COVID-19 pandemic led to significant mental health adverse outcomes of HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic in Latvia. A further cohort study is needed to evaluate the dynamics of mental health and other predisposing factors of HCWs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1381
Number of pages12
JournalMedicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 18 Dec 2021


  • Anxiety/epidemiology
  • COVID-19
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Demography
  • Depression/epidemiology
  • Health Personnel
  • Humans
  • Latvia/epidemiology
  • Mental Health
  • Pandemics
  • SARS-CoV-2

Field of Science*

  • 3.3 Health sciences
  • 5.1 Psychology
  • 3.5 Other medical sciences

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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