Microbiological Examination of Clinical Material in Halitosis Patients

Loreta Briuka (Coresponding Author), Juta Kroiča, Sintija Miluna, Ingus Skadiņš, Šarlote Agate Vanka, Dagnija Rostoka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Regarding oral biofilm aspects, there has been strong evidence for a microbiotic component in the aetiology of halitosis. Many oral microbiota have protheolytic and putative activity, but there have been no studies investigating the association of microbiota in oral biofilms with halitosis. The objective of this study was to determine species of oral microbiota in the periodontal area and dorsal part of tongue biofilm, and how their quantitative amounts differ in halitosis patients. The clinical bacterial material from halitosis patients (altogether 98 persons, volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) on average 380 ppb) was taken from periodontal pockets and the dorsal part of the tongue for microbiological diagnostics of anaerobic bacteria, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for the comparison of bacterial quantity. The study showed the primary aetiology factors of halitosis in Latvia, and offers possible versions of microbiological diagnostics of halitosis. Even though the examination of halitosis patients and determination of VSC using a halimeter is technically simpler and cheaper, the determination of aetiological factors and their combinations using microbiological examination of clinical material with PCR tests are more precise. A characteristic ecological niche of anaerobic bacteria is not only the anaerobic environment of periodontal pockets, but also the microbiota of the dorsal part of the tongue. Additionally, some anaerobic bacteria species (Porohyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia) in larger amounts are found on the microbiome of the tongue. Therefore, it is advisable to begin microbiological diagnostics in halitosis patients with quantitative diagnostics of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola on the biofilm of the tongue coating.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)60-65
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, Section B: Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2023


  • anaerobic bacteria
  • halitosis
  • oral biofilm
  • periodontal pockets
  • volatile sulphur compounds

Field of Science*

  • 3.1 Basic medicine
  • 1.6 Biological sciences
  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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