Mildronate treatment alters γ-butyrobetaine and l -carnitine concentrations in healthy volunteers

Edgars Liepinsh, Ilze Konrade, Elina Skapare, Osvalds Pugovics, Solveiga Grinberga, Janis Kuka, Ivars Kalvinsh, Maija Dambrova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)
33 Downloads (Pure)


Objectives In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of long-term administration of the cardioprotective drug mildronate on the concentrations of l-carnitine and γ-butyrobetaine in healthy volunteers. Methods Mildronate was administered perorally, at a dosage of 500 mg, twice daily. Plasma and urine samples were collected weekly. Daily meat consumption within an average, non-vegetarian diet was monitored. l-Carnitine, γ-butyrobetaine and mildronate concentrations were measured using the UPLC/MS/MS method. Key findings After 4 weeks, the average concentrations of l-carnitine in plasma significantly decreased by 18%. The plasma concentrations of γ-butyrobetaine increased about two-fold, and this effect was statistically significant in both the male and female groups. In urine samples, a significant increase in l-carnitine and γ-butyrobetaine levels was observed, which provides evidence for increased excretion of both substances during the mildronate treatment. At the end of the treatment period, the plasma concentration of mildronate was 20 μm on average. There were no significant differences between the effects observed in female and male volunteers. Meat consumption partially reduced the l-carnitine-lowering effects induced by mildronate. Conclusions Long-term administration of mildronate significantly lowers l-carnitine plasma concentrations in non-vegetarian, healthy volunteers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1195-1201
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2011


  • γ (gamma)-butyrobetaine
  • l -carnitine
  • mildronate

Field of Science*

  • 3.1 Basic medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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