Studies from Europe and the United States indicate that women during the lactation period do not consume sufficient amounts of essential micronutrients. Previously reported data from Latvia indicates a low vegetable, fruit, fish, cereal, and milk and dairy products intake among lactating women. This raises concerns that nutrient (especially minerals and vitamins) intakes could also be insufficient. Therefore, this study aimed to assess mineral and vitamin intakes among lactating women in Latvia in comparison to nutritional guidelines at both a national and European level. 72-h food diaries were collected from 62 participants during the period November 2016 till December 2017 and from 68 participants during the period from January 2020 to December 2020. This also allowed us to evaluate whether nutrient intakes among lactating women in Latvia have changed in recent years. The Fineli Food Composition Database was used to calculate micronutrient intakes among the participants. MS Excel 2019 and IBM SPSS Statistics 23 were used for the statistical data analysis. The results revealed that dietary intakes of calcium, iron, iodine, and vitamins A, D, B1, and B9 among the participants of both study periods did not meet dietary recommendations. Low mineral and vitamin intakes could potentially affect the composition of human milk, and therefore micronutrient intakes, for breastfed infants. This indicates a need to develop dietary guidelines in order to improve diets among lactating women in Latvia.
- Human milk
Field of Science*
- 3.2 Clinical medicine
- 3.3 Health sciences
- 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database