Nagu patomorfoloģiskās pārmaiņas onihomikozes gadījumā

Translated title of the contribution: Morphopathological Picture on Nails Affected by Onychomycosis

Olga Zaikovska, Māra Pilmane, Jānis Ķīsis

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

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Introduction. Onychomycosis is a chronic infection, which is difficult to treat.
Aim. Contemporary morphology creates opportunities to study the functional units of a nail when
such infections occur, taking into account the components of vascularisation, innervations and apoptosis.
Material and methods. Biopsies of 22 onychomycosis patients were stained with haematoxylin and
eosin, and the Periodic-acid-Schiff reaction was carried out. Immunohistochemical methods were also
used in the respective study.
Results. Nests of hypertrophy were found in the granulose layer of epidermis, with focal
acanthosis. In the horn layer, nests of parakeratosis of various sizes were identified, with incorporations
of homogenous and eosinophil masses. There was a swelling and diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes in
the dermis. The PAS reaction showed round, monogene and eosinophil elements of fungi, as well as long
chains of tiny, bullet-shaped fungi. Nerve fibres containing PGP 9.5 were found in the linking tissue and
in the epithelium of the bed of the nail (small to a medium amount). Medium to high levels of IL-6 positive
cells in the bed of the nail and in the bloodstream were located. IL-1, however, was not a part of any of
the functional units of any of the nails. Medium to high amount HBD-2-containing fibres were found in
the bed and plate of the nail. Interestingly, HBD-4 was not found in any of the samples. The number of
apoptotic cells in the bed of the nail varied, and AI was identified being between 19% and 71%.
Conclusions. Onychomycosis affected nail functional units change the bed of the nail (hyperplasia
of cells, hypertrophy) and the plate of the nail (inclusion of fungi, parakeratosis, vacuolisation). When
it comes to onychomycosis infected nails, the most effective morphopathogenic processes include antiinfectious cytokine IL-6 and programmed death of cells in the bed of the nail. Onychomycosis practically
does not cause ischemia in surrounding tissue (a lack of VEGF), and it does not significantly change
the innervation of the plate of the nail. With the anti-microbial peptides, the functional unit of a nail
affected by onychomycosis exude beta defensin-2, while beta defensin-4 is not linked to an invasion
of fungi.
Translated title of the contributionMorphopathological Picture on Nails Affected by Onychomycosis
Original languageLatvian
Title of host publicationRīgas Stradiņa universitātes Zinātniskie raksti
Subtitle of host publication2013. gada medicīnas nozares pētnieciskā darba publikācijas
Place of PublicationRīga
PublisherRīgas Stradiņa universitāte
ISBN (Print)978-9984-793-56-6
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Publication series

NameRSU Zinātniskie Raksti
ISSN (Print)1407-9453


  • onihomikoze
  • naga morfoloģija
  • antimikrobie peptīdi
  • interleikīns-6
  • interleikīns-1
  • apoptoze
  • VEGF
  • PGP
  • 9,5
  • PAS reakcija

Field of Science*

  • 3.1 Basic medicine
  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 3.2. Articles or chapters in other proceedings other than those included in 3.1., with an ISBN or ISSN code


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