Mildronate, a representative of the aza-butyrobetaine class of drugs with proven cardioprotective efficacy, was recently found to prevent dysfunction of complex I in rat liver mitochondria. The present study demonstrates that mildronate also acts as a neuroprotective agent. In a mouse model of azidothymidine (anti-HIV drug) neurotoxicity, mildronate reduced the azidothymidine-induced alterations in mouse brain tissue: it normalized the increase in caspase-3, cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS) and iNOS expression assessed by quantitative and semi-quantitative analysis. Mildronate also normalized the changes in cytochrome c oxidase (COX) expression, reduced the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cellular infiltration. The present results show that the neuroprotective action of mildronate results at least partially from anti-neurodegenerative (anti-apoptotic) and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. It might be suggested that the molecular conformation of mildronate can facilitate its easy binding to mitochondria, and regulate the expression of different signal molecules, hence maintaining cellular signaling and survival.
- Azidothymidine neurotoxicity
Field of Science*
- 3.2 Clinical medicine
- 3.1 Basic medicine
- 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database