Oral Microbiome Traits of Type 1 Diabetes and Phenylketonuria Patients in Latvia

Iveta Abola (Coresponding Author), Dita Gudra, Maija Ustinova, Davids Fridmanis, Darta Elizabete Emulina, Ingus Skadins, Anda Brinkmane, Una Lauga-Tunina, Linda Gailite, Madara Auzenbaha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Some metabolic disorder treatments require patients to follow a specific diet or to consume supplements that, over time, can lead to oral microbiome alterations. Well-known disorders requiring such treatment are phenylketonuria (PKU), an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, and type 1 diabetes (T1D), a metabolic disorder that requires a specific diet regimen. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the oral health and microbiome characteristics that might contribute to caries activity and periodontal disease risk in PKU and T1D patients. In this cross-sectional study, 45 PKU patients, 24 T1D patients, and 61 healthy individuals between the ages of 12 and 53 years were examined. Their anamnestic data and dental status were assessed by one dentist. Microbial communities were detected from saliva-isolated DNA using 16S rRNA gene V3–V4 sequencing on Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. Results revealed that the PKU patient group displayed the highest number of extracted teeth (on average 1.34), carious teeth (on average 4.95), and carious activity (44.44% of individuals) compared to the T1D and CTRL groups. The lowest numbers of filled teeth (on average 5.33) and extracted teeth (on average 0.63) per individual were observed in T1D patients. Gingivitis appeared more often in the T1D group; however, possible risk of periodontal disease was seen in both the T1D and PKU patient groups. The highest number of differentially abundant genera was detected in the PKU group (n = 20), with enrichment of Actinomyces (padj = 4.17 × 10−22), Capnocytophaga (padj = 8.53 × 10−8), and Porphyromonas (padj = 1.18 × 10−5) compared to the CTRL group. In conclusion, the dental and periodontal health of PKU patients was found to be significantly inferior compared to T1D patients and healthy controls. T1D patients showed early signs of periodontal disease. Several genera that correlate with periodontal disease development were found in both groups, thus suggesting that T1D and PKU patients should seek early and regular dental advice and be educated about proper oral hygiene practices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1471
Number of pages19
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 31 May 2023


  • 16S rRNA sequencing
  • microbiome
  • phenylketonuria
  • type 1 diabetes

Field of Science*

  • 1.6 Biological sciences
  • 3.2 Clinical medicine
  • 3.1 Basic medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


Dive into the research topics of 'Oral Microbiome Traits of Type 1 Diabetes and Phenylketonuria Patients in Latvia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this