Pediatric Readiness in the Emergency Department and Its Association with Patient Outcomes in Critical Care: A Prospective Cohort Study

Reinis Balmaks, Travis M. Whitfill (Coresponding Author), Baiba Ziemele, Madara Blumberga, Reinis Upenieks, Ivars Vegeris, Ilze Grope, Jana Pavare, Marc A. Auerbach, Isabel T. Gross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Pediatric mortality in Latvia remains one of the highest among Europe. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of pediatric acute care and pediatric readiness and determine their association with patient outcomes using a patient registry. Design: This was a prospective cohort study. Pediatric readiness was measured using the weighted pediatric readiness score based on a 100-point scale. The processes of care were measured using in situ simulations to generate a composite quality score. Clinical outcome data-including PICU and hospital length of stay as well as 6-month mortality-were collected from the Pediatric Intensive Care Audit Network registry. The associations between composite quality score and weighted pediatric readiness score on patient outcomes were explored with mixed-effects regressions. Setting: This study was conducted in all Latvian Emergency Departments and in the national PICU. Patients: All patients who were transferred into the national PICU were included. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: All (16/16) Latvian Emergency Departments participated with a mean composite quality score of 35.3 of 100 and a median weighted pediatric readiness score of 31 of 100. A total of 254 patients were included in the study and followed up for a mean of 436 days, of which nine died (3.5%). Higher weighted pediatric readiness score was associated significantly with lower length of stay in both the PICU and hospital (adjusted ß,-0.06; p = 0.021 and-0.36; p = 0.011, respectively) and lower 6-month mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88-0.98). Conclusions: These data provide a national assessment of pediatric emergency care in a European country. Pediatric readiness in the emergency department was associated with patient outcomes in this population of pediatric patients transferred to the national PICU.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E213-E220
JournalPediatric Critical Care Medicine
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2020


  • emergency medicine
  • pediatric intensive care
  • pediatric readiness
  • simulation

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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