Peri-implant mucosal tissue thickness influence on peri-implant bone changes

Ingus Arnolds Apse, Artūrs Paparde, Ģirts Šalms, Peteris Apse, Alīna Gončarova, Rihards Lācis

Research output: Contribution to journalMeeting Abstractpeer-review


Background: Gradual bone loss around the implants is an ongoing concern. More recently peri-implant mucosal tissue thickness (MTT) is considered as a contributing factor which influences bone remodelling. It has been suggested that tissue thickness thinner than 2.5 mm may contribute to more peri-implant bone loss eventually affecting implant bone stability. Measuring of MTT prior to surgery may be a predictor of the bone changes and could modify the surgical methods.

Aim/Hypothesis: The aim of this radiographic retrospective study was undertaken to test the relationship of peri-implant MTT on long-term (3-5 yrs) bone changes. The null hypothesis tested that MTT influences bone stability.

Materials and Methods: This retrospective radiographic study evaluated proximal peri-implant bone changes around in the maxillary premolar area. Patients were selected from “Adenta Dental Clinic” database (included if radiographs were acquired prior to surgery, 1st year after surgery, 3-5 years after surgery). Patients were divided in to two groups based on Linkevicius et. al. (2009) study. Each measurement was done three times by three experts with initials: IA, RL, AG. Peri-implant bone levels were measured at proximal sites two times: one year and 3 to 5 years after implant placement. The differences in bone thickness at proximal sites (DM, DD) and relationship between MTT and peri-implant bone stability were evaluated in both groups (Group 1 = MTT < 2.5 mm and Group 2 = MTT ≥ 2.5 mm). Additionally, patient smoking status (yes/no) and implant diameters (small implant group: 3-3.9 mm; large implant group 4-5 mm) were compared to MTT and peri-implant bone changes.

Results: Total of 450 measurements of MTT and 150 measurements of proximal sites were taken in 50 patients (22 M, 28 F) with the average age of 57 years (12 patients with smoking of at least 10 cigarettes a day. Radiographs were divided into two groups: group 1 - (61 measurements of proximal sites, 183 measurements of MTT); group 2 - (89 measurements of proximal sites, 267 measurements of MTT). Average MTT in group 1 was 1.88 ± 0.05 mm and for group 2 was 3.12 ± 0.06 mm (P < 0.001). There were no differences between groups in 1st and 2nd follow up at proximal sites (1st follow-up mesial site: P = 0.168 and distal site P = 0.125), (2nd follow-up mesial site: P = 0.230 and distal site P = 0.325). There were no correlations with MTT and peri-implant bone changes in Group 1 (DM, r =−0.08, P = 0.53; DD, r=−0.26, P = 0.04) and in Group 2 (DM, r= −0.20, P = 0.06; DD, r= −0.40, P = 0.71). No significant difference was found between factors such as smoking, implant diameter, MTT and peri-implant bone changes.

Conclusions and Clinical Implications: Within the limits of the present study, the peri-implant mucosal tissue thickness does not seem to influence changes in coronal peri-implant bone. Peri-implant bone stability does not seem to be affected by the difference of implant diameter. Smoking does not seem to influence nor mucosal tissue thickness and bone stability. Implant diameter does not seem to influence peri-implant bone stability.


  • Peri-implant bone stability
  • Peri-implant mucosal tissue thickness
  • Longterm implant stability

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 3.4. Other publications in conference proceedings (including local)


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