Meldonium (mildronate; 3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium)propionate; THP; MET-88) is a clinically used cardioprotective drug, which mechanism of action is based on the regulation of energy metabolism pathways through L-carnitine lowering effect. L-Carnitine biosynthesis enzyme γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase and carnitine/organic cation transporter type 2 (OCTN2) are the main known drug targets of meldonium, and through inhibition of these activities meldonium induces adaptive changes in the cellular energy homeostasis. Since L-carnitine is involved in the metabolism of fatty acids, the decline in its levels stimulates glucose metabolism and decreases concentrations of L-carnitine related metabolites, such as long-chain acylcarnitines and trimethylamine-N-oxide. Here, we briefly reviewed the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of meldonium in treatment of heart failure, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, atherosclerosis and diabetes.
- Long-chain acylcarnitines
Field of Science*
- 3.1 Basic medicine
- 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database