Point prevalence and sex-specific associated factors of depression in Latvian general population

Vineta Viktorija Vinogradova (Coresponding Author), Anda Ķīvīte-Urtāne, Jeļena Vrubļevska, Elmārs Rancāns

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Background: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the current prevalence
of depression, and analyze sex-specific associated socio-demographic and
health-related factors for depression in a representative sample of the general
adult population of Latvia.
Methods: Specially trained professional interviewers conducted computerassisted face-to-face interviews with a multistage stratified probability sample
from the general Latvian adult population (n = 2,687). A 9-item Patient Health
Questionnaire (PHQ) was used for assessment of depression. Respondents were
interviewed using the specially developed questionnaire about sociodemographic
factors as well as the alcohol use disorder module of the Mini International
Neuropsychiatric Interview. Binary logistic regression was used to calculate the
odds ratios (OR) for the univariate and multivariate logistic analyses.
Results: The point prevalence of depression according to the PHQ-9 was 6.4%
(95% CI 5.8–7.6). After adjustment for all independent variables analyzed, being
divorced, widowed, or living separately increased the odds of depression [aOR
2.6 (95% CI, 1.2–5.8), p = 0.02] in males. For females, unfinished primary education
[aOR 5.2 (95% CI 2.0–13.6), p = 0.001] and economically inactive status [aOR 2.0
(95% CI, 1.1–3.6), p = 0.03] were strongly associated with depression.
Limitations: The cross-sectional design of the study did not allow us to draw
conclusions about causality. Patients with bipolar, organic, and symptomatic
depression states were not excluded.
Conclusion: The prevalence of depression in the general adult population is
6.4%, with the most significant sex-specific factors associated with depression for
males – being divorced, widowed, or living separately, and for females it was poor
education and economic inactivity.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1065404
JournalFrontiers in Psychiatry
Publication statusPublished - 28 Mar 2023


  • depression
  • epidemiology
  • prevalence
  • general population
  • sex-specific factors

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine
  • 3.3 Health sciences

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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